How to solve problems and find genotype/phenotype as result of the cross?. 1. Genetic Crosses
2. Think About It... How can an offspring have a certain trait if neither of its parents displayed that trait? How many alleles does an offspring get from each parent?
3. Law of Segregation Each parent passes on ONE of two alleles to its offspring. LAW OF SEGREGATION: Each pair of alleles is segregated, or separated, during the formation of gametes.
4. Meiosis Aa A a A a Chromosomes double A A a a
5. Law of Independent Assortment Alleles for different characteristics are distributed to different gametes independently.
6. Example A In rabbits, brown fur (B) is dominant to white fur (b). If a rabbit is heterozygous for fur color, what gametes could be created?
7. Example B A rabbit is homozygous recessive for fur. What color is it? What percentage of its gametes would have the allele for brown fur?
8. Punnett Squares Chart that shows possible combinations when egg and sperm combine
9. Punnett Squares Draw a square as shown. Each box represents a possible combination of alleles in the offspring.
10. Punnett Squares Determine which alleles will be in the sex cells of each parent. Write the egg and sperm possibilities along the top and side.
11. Punnett Squares Copy the alleles into the boxes below and across from them. Calculate percentage of offspring with each phenotype.
12. Punnett Squares Your problems must display the following: Original cross Punnett Square Resulting phenotypes (# or percentage) Phenotype ratio
13. Example I In pot-bellied pigs, grey fur (G) is dominant to pink fur (g). A homozygous dominant male pig mates with a pink female pig. Predict the possible F 1 offspring.
14. Example II A man heterozygous for a cleft chin, a dominant trait, mates with a woman with no cleft chin. What percentage of their children will have a cleft chin?
15. Example III Pollen from a rose bush with red flowers, a dominant trait, was crossed to a second bush with red flowers. (White is the recessive trait.) If the first plant was homozygous and the second plant was heterozygous, predict the possibilities of their offspring.
16. Example IV In parrots, green feathers are dominant over red feathers. Two heterozygous birds are crossed. What are the possible genotypes of the F 1 generation?
17. F 1 Crosses A common cross involves crossing two individuals with opposing traits, one homozygous dominant and one homozygous recessive, the crossing their F 1 offspring to analyze the F 2 generation.
18. Example V Cross a homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive parrot, then cross two of the F 1 offspring. What is the ratio of dominant and recessive offspring in the F 2 ? G = green G = red
19. A Common Ratio Any time a homozygous dominant individual is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual, the F 2 generation will have a 3:1 ratio of dominant traits to recessive traits.
20. Pea Plant Experiments Experiment 1: Plant Height Mendel crossed a short plant with a tall plant. All offspring were tall. Crossing two of the offspring resulted in 787 tall plants and 277 short plants -- HOW???
21. Pea Plant Experiments Experiment 2: Seed Color Mendel crossed a yellow-seed plant with a green-seed plant. All offspring had yellow seeds. Crossing two of the offspring resulted in 6,022 yellow-seed plants and 2001 green-seed plants -- HOW???
22. Monohybrid Crosses The crosses we have been completing are called "monohybrid crosses" because they deal with only one trait.
23. Other Types of Inheritance
24. Types of Inheritance Dominant-Recessive Multiple Alleles Codominance Incomplete Dominance
25. Multiple Alleles Characteristics are determined by more than two alleles Example: human blood types (A, B, AB, O)
26. Incomplete Dominance Heterozygous individuals have a phenotype in-between the dominant and recessive phenotypes
27. Incomplete Dominance Carnations can be red, white, or pink R R = red R' R' = white R R' = pink
28. Example VI Cross a red carnation with a white carnation. What is the phenotype ratio?
29. Example VII Cross two F 1 carnations from the previous cross. What is the phenotype ratio of the F 2 generation?
30. Example VIII Chinchillas are fuzzy, South American rodents. Two alleles control their fur color: F, which represents black, and f, which represents white. Heterozygous chinchillas are grey. Cross a grey chinchilla male with a white female. Give the possible offspring colors and ratio.
31. Example VIII
32. Codominance Heterozygous individuals display both phenotypes Examples: Human blood type AB Roan horses = red and white fur Calico cats = orange and black fur
33. Example IX A roan mare, heterozygous for coat color, is crossed with a red stallion. Describe their offspring. (R codes for red while R' codes for white.)
34. Example X A calico cat has the genotype BB'. What is the ratio of F 2 offspring if a pure-breeding black cat (BB) is crossed with a pure-breeding orange cat (B'B'), and then their offspring are crossed?
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